Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), it is the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area.
Canada’s southern border with the United States is the world’s longest bi-national land border. The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest, tundra, and the Rocky Mountains. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the roughly 35 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities; many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its five largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary and Ottawa.